Massive Hemoptysis – many definitions but better measured by the magnitude of the functional effects of the hemoptysis rather than the amount. What is the current clinical impact on the patient?
- Need for Hospitalization
- Need for Intubation
- Need for Transfusion
- Degree of hypoxemia and hypotension
- Proximal airway bleeding – malignant tumors(by far most common). Important to identify because interventional pulmonary techniques are very useful, and a rigid bronchoscope reaches this area, making it the instrument of choice
- Distal airway bleeding – Many causes, virtually every lung pathology can lead to bleeding. Implications – bleeding cannot always be managed by interventional pulmonary methods